Effect of olive pulp enrichment on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of wheat bread

Anna Marinopoulou, Maria Papageorgiou, Maria Irakli, Dimitrios Gerasopoulos


Black and green olive pulp was added to wheat bread formulation at different levels (5, 10, 15%) with the aim to improve its nutritional value by enhancing the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Additionally, the effects of the fortification with olive pulp on the physical characteristics, staling rate and overall consumer acceptability of the formulated breads were explored. Both olive pulps exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined wheat flour. Baking imparted an impressive increase in TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of breads as revealed by comparison of experimental with theoretical values but returned significant differences only in the case of TPC when a two-tailed t-test for paired data was applied. Texture measurements showed a substantial increase in hardness with storage along with decreasing loaf volume and increased density. Hydroxytyrosol was the major phenolic compound of fortified breads followed by tyrosol. Olive pulp could be incorporated in a bread formulation without interfering with the general sensory acceptability.


Olive pulp; bread; antioxidants; staling

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