Evaluation of the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chicken cooked by Saudi traditional methods and their dietary risk assessment

Abdullah A. Al Sayari, Mohammed A. Almutairi, Turki S. Alsaleem, Turki Abu Hamrh, Naseer Al Thenyian, Abdullah I. Al Tamim, Abdullah M. Alowaifeer


This study evaluates the formation of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chicken thighs and breasts, cooked by different methods. These methods are: madhbi, charcoal mandi, electrical oven mandi, gas flame oven mandi and shawaya. Chicken samples were collected from a restaurant in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Analysis of the samples was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The data obtained showed that madhbi chicken had higher PAHs levels than other cooking styles, with the mean concentration in chicken breast of 87.72 µg/Kg and thigh of 75.56 µg/Kg. Phenanthrene was the compound detected at the highest concentration in different cooking methods. There was no significant difference in concentration of PAHs between the parts of chicken cooked with the same method. However, the method of cooking had a significant impact on the formation of PAHs. Therefore, the formation of PAHs in chicken meat could be reduced by choosing appropriate cooking methods. Moreover, the margin of exposure was used to assess the health risk in adults due to madhbi chicken ingestion. The results showed that there is no serious health concern. 


PAHs; HPLC; chicken; risk assessment; margin of exposure

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