Effect of Grewia venusta FRESEN mucilage on the proximate composition, physical and sensory properties of bread produced from wheat and cassava composite flours

Arubi P. Alobo, Gibson L. Arueya

Abstract


Wheat and cassava composite breads are generally associated with volume and textural defects in contrast with the traditional wheat based variants. Efforts to mitigate this challenge through use of synthetic additives have been unsuccessful owing to safety concerns. The objective of this study was to explore Grewia venusta mucilage as a potential natural additive in wheat-cassava composite bread production. Sweet cassava flour was used to replace wheat flour at 100: 0 (control), 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30% ratios in bread making. Aqueous extract of G. venusta stem bark was oven dried (50±3 oC), milled and added at 0, 1.0 and 2.0% (w/w) to the flour mixtures. These, along with other conventional inputs were mixed, and used to produce bread. Proximate compositions, physical and sensory properties of the bread loaves were evaluated. Cassava flour inclusion resulted in significant (P≤0.05) decrease in the protein content of the control from 18.1% to 12.1% (90:10%), 11.5% (80:20%) and 9.9% (70:30%). Addition of mucilage marginally increased the protein and dietary fibre contents of the loaves. Loaves containing 1-2% mucilage were more regular in shape with smoother crust than those without mucilage. Cassava flour addition at 10%, 20% and 30% decreased loaf height from 6.0 cm to 5.8 cm, 5.7 cm and 5.5 cm, as well as loaf volume from 815.5 cm3 to 783.1 cm3, 776.8 cm3 and 744.5 cm3, respectively. Mucilage inclusion resulted in increased heights and volumes of the loaves and reduced weights of loaf fragments upon slicing. The mucilage significantly improved the texture of the bread loaves. 


Keywords


bread quality; cassava flour; Grewia mucilage; physical and sensory properties

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