Quantitative Analysis of Caffeine and Phosphoric Acid in Non-Alcoholic Beverages Marketed in Kosovo

Arbenita Hasani, Manjola Kuliçi, Ardit Kryeziu, Ereleta Kryeziu, Endrit Hasani


Non-alcoholic beverages often contain various constituents and additives, influencing both their nutritional profiles and functional attributes. Given the ubiquity of these beverages and their potential health implications, rigorous quality checks are indispensable to ascertain compliance with health and safety standards. This research aimed to quantify caffeine and phosphoric acid levels in a diverse array of soft drinks from Kosovo’s market. To achieve this, 41 distinct non-alcoholic beverage samples from the local market were scrutinized. Caffeine concentrations were determined via UV-Vis spectrophotometry, while potentiometric titration was employed to assess phosphoric acid levels. As expected, energy drinks in Kosovo contained markedly higher caffeine concentrations compared to carbonated soft drinks and ice-tea variants. On the other hand, based on the results, analysed energy drinks showed somewhat greater caffeine contents than those reported in packaging of the beverage samples. Our study showed that a significant portion of the samples (21.95% for caffeine and 9.76% for phosphoric acid) did not conform to the standards set by EU 1169/2011 regulation or the EU 1333/2008 regulation. These findings underscore the urgency for relevant food safety authorities to implement rigorous oversight and enact appropriate protective measures. It is also imperative for the Kosovo National Food Safety Authority to craft specific regulations stipulating permissible additive concentrations, especially for caffeine and phosphoric acid, in non-alcoholic beverages.


Additives; Carbonated soft drinks; Energy drinks; Caffeine; Phosphoric acid

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