Cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Llanerón) extracts: In vitro study

Rosa Raybaudi-Massilia, Alírica I. Suárez, Francisco Arvelo, Alexandra Zambrano, Felipe Sojo, María I. Calderón-Gabaldón, Jonathan Mosqueda-Melgar

Abstract


Alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by different methodologies to evaluate their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Alcoholic extracts (MFP, MSd, SFP, SDP, SSd) from fresh red sweet pepper (FP) and dry pulp (DP) and seed (Sd) were obtained by maceration (M) and Soxhlet (S) equipment using methanol as extraction solvent; whereas aqueous extracts (LFP, LSd) were obtained by decoction followed by lyophilization (L). Human tumoral cell lines from breast (MCF-7 and SKBr3), prostate (PC3) and cervix (HeLa), and fibroblasts (as control) were used to determine the cytotoxic properties by the MTT assay. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were determined by DPPH and disc diffusion method, respectively. The extracts SDP and SFP showed the higher cytotoxic activity. The SDP extract had a significant (P < 0.05) in-vitro effect on HeLa (1.9 ± 1.4 µg/mL) and PC3 (< 1 µg/mL) cells with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (26.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL); whereas, SFP had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on MCF-7 cell line (2.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL) with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (25.9 ± 1.0 µg/mL). The higher antioxidant activity was found for MFP (80.3 ± 0.2%) and SFP extracts (75.5 ± 0.5%). Mild antimicrobial activity was only observed for alcoholic extracts. The results showed the potential of red sweet pepper (C. annuum L.) as a source of antioxidant and cytotoxic compounds, and suggest the need of further studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds that impart those properties.


Keywords


cytotoxic; antioxidant; antimicrobial; Capsicum annuum L.; red sweet pepper

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